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60         HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION

teaching but for taking a part in the direction of public affairs ;
and in keeping with this change in their status, the wisdom they
impart to their disciples has lost something of its cosmopolitan
character and comprises a knowledge of the covenant made by
God with the Jews. What Ecclesiasticus suggests, in fact, is a
growing fusion of Greek and Jewish education which would have
led ultimately to a compromise between the two tendencies in
Jewish life. But in less than a decade from the writing of Ecclesi-
asticus, the violent methods adopted by King Antiochus
Epiphanes to force Hellenism on the Jews completely arrested the
progress of the Greek influence; and when the revolt of the
Maccabees was over, the spirit of nationalism was so over-
whelmingly in the ascendant that the cosmopolitan education had
practically disappeared.

But the Greek spirit had so far prevailed that it was not possible
for the new nationalism to be indifferent to education. The Jews,
indeed, were now more concerned about education than ever
before. The education they wished for their children, however,
was not a general training in wisdom, but a training that would
make the whole people devoted to the Law. " The multitude
that knoweth not the Law are accursed," the Pharisees are recorded
to have said, in John's Gospel. That is the fundamental con-
viction of later Judaism, and it led to a great zeal in the education
of the young. " We take most pains of all with the instruction of
the children/* says Josephus, " and esteem the observance of the
laws and the piety corresponding with them the most important
affair of our whole life."* There seem to have been elementary
schools in some parts of the country in the century before Christ,
and according to a late tradition of doubtful worth, attendance at
these schools was made compulsory on all children in Jerusalem
in 75 B.C. About A.D. 65 the High Priest Joshua, the son of
Paul's teacher Gamaliel, ordained that teachers of boys should be
appointed in every province and town. It is a significant fact that
the elementary school was called the House of the Book, indicating
that the main concern was with the reading of the Book of the
Law. In the House of the Book, the elements of knowledge-
reading and writingówere imparted, and the children were
taught not merely to know the Law but to do it.
This legalistic education did not necessarily end with boyhood
Apion, i, ia.